By then he had developed his own distinctive philosophical ideas, including his passion for the study of nature. He joined a philosophical circle in Assos on the coast of Asia Minor, but soon moved to the nearby island of Lesbos where he met Theophrastus, a young man with similar interests in natural science. Between the two of them they originated the science of biology, Aristotle carrying out a systematic investigation of animals, Theophrastus doing the same for plants. By he had returned to Athens, now under the control of his former student Alexander.
In the mean time, the paper will discuss whether the distinction of the first and second nature, the procedure for the acquisition of second nature, and the classification of the four types of characters are plausible. Aristotle believes that the nature of moral virtues is an intermediate character or condition that lies between a state of excess and a state of defect or deficiency, and where the virtuous behaviors are located in the between is determined by specific circumstances that each individual faces.
For example, there is no universal rule regulating how much a person should drink because personal tolerances, occasions, and what drinking entails for activities in the future are all determinants that differ for people, time, and space. For someone who has never had a drink before, drinking a moderate amount would be a virtue; for someone who is supposed to be preparing for a presentation for a conference the next day, drinking excessively will not be a virtue, but having a glass of wine at dinner with a good friend who is visiting in town is perhaps acceptable, while such behavior may not have as much significance in other circumstances because not everyone in the world is compelled to make a virtuous choice because there is a deadline awaiting.
Aristotle further associates the issue of virtues with their relationships with pleasures and pains. Whether you are virtuous in choosing between the excess and the deficiency is determined by what you take pleasure in and what you are in pain by.
The virtuous person takes pleasure or at A critical analysis of aristotles theories is not pained by doing the right thing. If the analyst at a Wall Street bank determines to skip the bar hopping with his friend after dinner and stay home, and if he is genuinely pleased by his decision while he sits in front of his computer typing out the presentation, he is considered virtuous.
Another condition of the mean doctrine is that the truly virtuous person who finds the mean of the excess and the defect could not have chosen otherwise. For example, during the World War II, hundreds of thousands of Chinese civilians were slaughtered by Japanese soldiers in the infamous Nanjing Massacre, and despite of what necessary legal methods were taken after the war at the international court to determine individual charges based on the scope and number of murders involved with one criminal, whether the officer or the soldier was vicious was not determined by the number of civilians he killed, but by that he did in fact commit murder.
What people think of the situations, the actions they decide to take after they examine them, and how they evaluate their actions afterwards are determined by their second nature that is developed from their first nature.
For Aristotle, acting virtuously and being virtuous are two fundamentally different concepts because of the necessary involvement of rational deliberation and action taken given the deliberating process.
To act virtuously can mean either that the action has been through deliberation or it has been merely impetuous, while being virtuous indicates a higher standard that involves the inertia to act virtuously after clear and correct deliberations.
In order to differentiate and demonstrate the different effects that the development of second nature has on people, Aristotle characterizes four types of people based on how they react to particular situations. The first type knows what the right thing to do is, does it, and feels no psychological conflicts in taking the action.
The Wall Street analyst knows that the best thing to do would be to go home and prepare for his presentation because the it is important for himself and for the team he is representing to his clients. Since he has already had a lovely dinner with his friend, he should not indulge himself by extending the evening further and not to be responsible for his job.
He understands and interprets the situation correctly, and he feels no internal disorders in doing so. What makes him the most virtuous person with this particular matter is attributed to his second nature that includes the habituation of both the education he received as a child and the experiences throughout the years of rendering actions such as stealing unjust and frowned-upon.
The second type of character knows what the right thing to do is, does it, but with some discomfort and reluctance. In the prompt question, Mary was encouraged by her parents from early in her childhood to steal and feel okay about the action.
However, she learned through her experiences in life that stealing is wrong, and through years of habituation not stealing, she now considers stealing a vice but has not quite deprived herself of the temptation. She therefore believes that not stealing is the right thing to do, decides not to steal, but feels a bit of psychological disorder in constraining herself from not doing something that her old self would tempt her to do.
Had Mary not been habituated with not stealing while she knows that stealing is a vice, she might have fallen into the third type of characters, the group that knows what the right thing to do is, performs otherwise, and feels the discomfort or guilty accompanied by either doing things despite rational beliefs or simply doing it without much deliberations.
The mechanisms that drive this kind of behaviors, according to Aristotle, can be characterized into either impetuosity or weakness.This four-page undergraduate essay explains, compares, and contrasts the theories and discussions of Plato and Aristotle regarding the best political association.
Quotes from Politics and the Republic are used to support the author’s r-bridal.com://r-bridal.com · The significance of Mathew Arnold's critical theory William G.
Crane Crane, William G.. "The significance of Mathew Arnold's critical theory." MA (Master of Arts) thesis, State University of Iowa, ise of Aristotle, and the unrivalled works of their poets, ex r-bridal.com?article=&context=etd.
· The firm’s aim is the attainment of. economic equilibrium  over time: the earnings must “pay” or cover the input after the analysis of the corporate governance models, the attention will focus on the International Theories of Corporate Governance: Critical Analysis and Evidence of the Italian Model.
Alessandro Merendino r-bridal.com · Aristotle's definition of tragedy is best seen in the quote: Tragedy, then, is an imitation of an action that is serious and complete, and which has some greatness about it.
It imitates in words r-bridal.com · According to Aristotle, there are three elements that make a story a tragedy. The three elements (from the Greek) are hamartia, peripeteia, and anagnorisis, and all are present in Shakespeare's r-bridal.com · Literary criticism (or literary studies) is the study, evaluation, and interpretation of literature.
Modern literary criticism is often influenced by literary theory, which is the philosophical discussion of literature's goals and r-bridal.comy · Value of academic criticism · Key texts · See also · Referencesr-bridal.com